Grim Image of India Prompts Debate Over China’s Swaggering Propaganda
Even in China, where propaganda has become increasingly pugnacious, the display was jarring: A photograph of a Chinese rocket poised to blast into space juxtaposed with a cremation pyre in India, which is overwhelmed by the coronavirus. âChinese ignition versus Indian ignition,â the title read.
The image was quickly taken down by the Communist Party-run news service that posted it. But it has lingered as a provocative example of a broader theme running through Chinaâs state-run media. Official channels and online outlets often celebrate the countryâs success in curbing coronavirus infections, while highlighting the failings of others. Other comparisons in recent months include depicting crowds of shoppers or jubilant partygoers in China versus desolate streets and anti-lockdown protests abroad.
The example contrasting China with India was posted on Saturday on Weibo, a popular social media service, by a news service of the ruling partyâs powerful law-and-order commission. The post drew a backlash from internet users who called it callous, and it was taken down on the same day.
But it has kindled debate in China about attitudes toward India, and the tensions between Beijingâs nationalist rhetoric at home and its efforts to promote a humbler, more humane image abroad.
The controversy created an unusual rift between two of Chinaâs most voluble nationalist media pundits. Hu Xijin, the chief editor of the Global Times, an influential party newspaper, condemned the post for damaging Chinaâs standing in India, while Shen Yi, an academic in Shanghai, derided critics with a coarse term that means something like âpearl clutchers.â
âCan so-called expressions of sympathy for India achieve the anticipated outcome?â Mr. Shen said in one of his online responses to Mr. Hu. China, he suggested, should be more relaxed about flexing its political muscle. âWhere can an 800-pound gorilla sleep?â he wrote. âWherever it wants to.â
Chinese leaders have expressed sympathy and offered medical help to India, and the controversy may soon pass. But it has exposed how swaggering Chinese propaganda can collide with Beijingâs efforts to make friends abroad.
âYouâve had this growing tension between internal and external messaging,â said Mareike Ohlberg, a senior fellow in the Asia Program at the German Marshall Fund in Berlin who studies Chinese propaganda. âThey have an increasing number of interests internationally, but ultimately what it boils down to is that your primary target audience still lives at home.â
The Chinese news outlet that put out the image is among a plethora of party-backed media operations that have stepped up efforts to promote government policies, burnish the image of the top leader Xi Jinping, and hit back against foreign critics of the Communist Party.
In principle, the online operations answer to the Communist Partyâs Department of Propaganda and its legions of censors. In practice, the outlets may buck at constraints as they compete to demonstrate their dedication and influence, Ms. Ohlberg said. The demand for images and reports that draw a big public following âincentivizes people to put out messages that grab attention rather than smooth things over diplomatically,â she said.
Officials at the Chinese Foreign Ministry have also increasingly put out tweets, social media posts and speeches that vigorously defend Beijing, especially against Western criticisms of the governmentâs draconian policies in the far western region of Xinjiang and the crackdown in Hong Kong. This combative style, widely described as âwolf warriorâ diplomacy, has won praise at home, but drawn anger abroad.
In France, the Foreign Ministry summoned the Chinese ambassador to Paris in April last year after his embassyâs website wrote that French nurses had abandoned residents in nursing homes, a claim the government denied.